Jazz musicians including Ornette Coleman, Sun Ra and John Coltrane also sought transcendence with their art, and through shrieking horns and deconstructed rhythms, they set forth a new wave of energy music. It was called free jazz, a loose, improvised blend less tied to structure, and its creation has been credited to Coleman, who started playing these frenetic arrangements on a white plastic saxophone in 1959. The music, and its focus, evolved over the next decade: Sun Ra believed that black people would never find peace on Earth and should live on other planets. Coltrane, through his saxophone, blew shrill notes to summon higher powers.
Some jazz purists weren’t thrilled with this “new thing.” Still, the music persisted. Through Alice Coltrane, Pharoah Sanders, Archie Shepp and others, free jazz started tapping into black consciousness, and songs like “Journey in Satchidananda” and “The Creator Has a Master Plan” helped listeners escape the despair of everyday life.
In 2015, when America was in peril once again — unarmed black people were being killed by the police at an alarming rate, and the country’s ideological divides grew wider in the run-up to the presidential election — the music responded in kind. In December 2014, the R&B singer D’Angelo released “Black Messiah,” his most political album to date, and the following March, Kendrick Lamar put out “To Pimp a Butterfly,” an avant-rap album that embraced free jazz. Two months later, the saxophonist Kamasi Washington, a major contributor on “Butterfly,” released his own bold statement — a three-hour jazz album called “The Epic” — which, through its collection of big band, funk, spiritual music, gospel fusion and R&B, was meant to heal a new generation of black people fighting against overt oppression. Suddenly, jazz was cool again, and acts like Shabaka & the Ancestors and Irreversible Entanglements continue pushing forward.
To understand where black liberation jazz may head next, it’s helpful to listen to where it’s been. Here are 15 essential songs from the late 1960s and ’70s when the subgenre was just being established — a list that highlights tracks that were considered underground.
Sonny Sharrock, ‘Black Woman’ (1969)
The title track of the guitarist Sonny Sharrock’s debut album was meant to convey the paralyzing stress felt by black women every day in this country. For much of the song, Sharrock’s wife — the experimental vocalist Linda Sharrock — emits primal screams, as the intensity of Sonny’s rapid guitar chords grows more riotous. The track might be jarring, but it effectively captures the pain of being treated as subhuman.
Hal Singer, ‘Malcolm X’ (1971)
“Malcolm X” is a standout from the tenor saxophonist Hal Singer’s album “Blues and News,” which was released only in France. Singer is from Tulsa, Okla., and was 2 when the Tulsa massacretook place in his Greenwood community. “Malcolm X” pays homage to the civil rights leader through stacked drums, staggered piano chords and Singer’s billowing saxophone solo in a meditative mix of jazz and soul — a rightful nod to the historical figure.
Mtume Umoja Ensemble, ‘Baba Hengates’ (1972)
Long before James Mtume was known for the hit song “Juicy Fruit” in 1983, he led a jazz ensemble in the early ’70s and released “Alkebu-Lan: Land of the Blacks” on Strata-East Records. The album, Mr. Mtume declared on the opening “Invocation,” was a “humble offering to the unity of the entire black nation.” The bandleader also denounced the term “jazz” — rather, he said, the album was black music, pure and unfiltered.